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  • ~

    approximately

  • Symbols and abbreviations

    cross-reference

  • Symbols and abbreviations

    decreased

  • Symbols and abbreviations

    increased

  • Symbols and abbreviations

    leading to

  • Symbols and abbreviations

    normal

  • Symbols and abbreviations

    website

  • ±

    with or without

  • 2D

    two-dimensional

  • 3D

    three-dimensional

  • 5HT

    5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)

  • AAA

    abdominal aortic aneurysm

  • AAGBI

    Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland

  • ABG

    arterial blood gas

  • ACEI

    angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

  • ACJ

    acromioclavicular joint

  • ACL

    anterior cruciate ligament

  • ACR

    albumin:creatinine ratio

  • ACS

    acute coronary syndrome

  • ACTH

    adrenocorticotropic hormone

  • ADP

    adenosine diphosphate

  • ADPKD

    autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

  • AF

    atrial fibrillation

  • AFP

    Academic Foundation Programme

  • AIDS

    acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  • AKI

    acute kidney injury

  • ALF

    Access to Learning Fund

  • ALP

    alkaline phosphatase

  • ALS

    advanced life support

  • AMD

    age-related macular degeneration

  • ANA

    antinuclear antibody

  • AP

    anteroposterior

  • APTT

    activated partial thromboplastin time

  • ARB

    angiotensin receptor blocker

  • ARDS

    acute respiratory distress syndrome

  • AS

    aortic stenosis or ankylosing spondylitis

  • ASA

    aminosalicylic acid

  • aSAH

    aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

  • ASCT

    allogenic stem cell transplant

  • ASIS

    anterior superior iliac spine

  • AST

    aspartate transaminase

  • ATLS®

    Advanced Trauma Life Support®

  • ATN

    acute tubular necrosis

  • AV

    atrioventricular

  • AXR

    abdominal X-ray

  • BAL

    bronchoalveolar lavage

  • BCC

    basal cell carcinoma

  • BCG

    bacillus Calmette–Guérin

  • BMA

    British Medical Association

  • BMedSci

    Bachelor in Medical Sciences

  • BMI

    body mass index

  • BNF

    British National Formulary

  • BNFC

    British National Formulary for Children

  • BNP

    B-type natriuretic peptide

  • BP

    blood pressure

  • BPH

    benign prostatic hyperplasia

  • bpm

    beats per minute

  • BPPV

    benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

  • BSc

    Bachelor of Science

  • BTS

    British Thoracic Society

  • CABG

    coronary artery bypass graft

  • CBD

    common bile duct

  • CBT

    cognitive behavioural therapy

  • CCT

    certificate of completion of training

  • CD

    Crohn’s disease

  • CGA

    comprehensive geriatric assessment

  • CHD

    congenital heart disease

  • CJD

    Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

  • CK

    creatine kinase

  • CMV

    Cytomegalovirus

  • CNS

    central nervous system

  • CO

    cardiac output

  • COPD

    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  • COX

    cyclooxygenase

  • CPAP

    continuous positive airway pressure

  • CPR

    cardiopulmonary resuscitation

  • CRB

    Criminal Record Bureau

  • CREST

    calcinosis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, (o)esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia

  • CRP

    C-reactive protein

  • CS

    caesarean section

  • CSF

    cerebrospinal fluid

  • C-spine

    cervical spine

  • CT

    computed tomography

  • CTPA

    computed tomography pulmonary angiogram

  • CV

    curriculum vitae

  • CVA

    cerebrovascular accident

  • CVC

    central venous catheter

  • CVP

    central venous pressure

  • CVS

    cardiovascular system

  • CXR

    chest X-ray

  • D&V

    diarrhoea and vomiting

  • DC

    direct current

  • DHx

    drug history

  • DIC

    disseminated intravascular coagulation

  • DIPJ

    distal interphalangeal joint

  • DKA

    diabetic ketoacidosis

  • DM

    diabetes mellitus

  • DMARD

    disease-modifying anti-rheumatoid drug

  • DPhil

    Doctor of Philosophy

  • DRE

    digital rectal examination

  • DSM

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

  • DTaP

    diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis

  • DVLA

    Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency

  • DVT

    deep vein thrombosis

  • EBV

    Epstein–Barr virus

  • ECG

    electrocardiography/electrocardiogram

  • ED

    emergency department

  • EEG

    electroencephalography/electroencephalogram

  • ELISA

    enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

  • EMQ

    extended matching question

  • EPO

    erythropoietin

  • ERCP

    endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

  • ERV

    expiratory reserve volume

  • ESR

    erythrocyte sedimentation rate

  • ETOH

    alcohol

  • ETT

    endotracheal tube

  • EUS

    endoscopic ultrasound

  • EVAR

    endovascular aneurysm repair

  • FACS

    fluorescence-activated cell sorting

  • FBC

    full blood count

  • FEV1

    forced expiratory volume in 1 sec

  • FHx

    family history

  • FISH

    fluorescent in situ hybridization

  • FNA

    fine-needle aspiration

  • FNAC

    fine-needle aspiration cytology

  • FRC

    functional residual capacity

  • FVC

    forced vital capacity

  • FY1

    Foundation Year 1

  • G6PD

    glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

  • GA

    general anaesthesia

  • GC

    gonorrhoea

  • GCA

    giant cell arteritis

  • GCP

    Good Clinical Practice

  • GCS

    Glasgow coma scale

  • GHJ

    glenohumeral joint

  • GI

    gastrointestinal

  • GMC

    General Medical Council

  • GORD

    gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

  • GP

    general practitioner

  • GTN

    glyceryl trinitrate

  • GUM

    genitourinary medicine

  • HAART

    highly active antiretroviral therapy

  • Hb

    haemoglobin

  • HbA1c

    glycated haemoglobin

  • hCG

    human chorionic gonadotropin

  • HD

    Huntington disease

  • HDU

    high dependency unit

  • HiB

    Haemophilus influenza type B

  • HIV

    human immunodeficiency virus

  • HL

    Hodgkin lymphoma

  • HNPCC

    hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

  • HPB

    hepatopancreatobiliary

  • HPC

    history of presenting complaint

  • HPV

    human papilloma virus

  • HR

    heart rate

  • HSV

    herpes simplex virus

  • IBD

    inflammatory bowel disease

  • IC

    inspiratory capacity

  • ICD

    International Classification of Diseases

  • ICE

    ideas, concerns, and expectations

  • ICP

    intracranial pressure

  • Ig

    immunoglobulin

  • IHD

    ischaemic heart disease

  • IM

    intramuscular

  • IMA

    inferior mesenteric artery

  • INR

    international normalized ratio

  • IOL

    intraocular lens

  • IPJ

    interphalangeal joint

  • IPPA

    inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation

  • IPV

    inactivated polio vaccine

  • IRV

    inspiratory reserve volume

  • ITU

    intensive therapy unit

  • IV

    intravenous

  • IVDU

    intravenous drug user

  • IVF

    in vitro fertilization

  • JVP

    jugular venous pressure

  • KUB

    kidneys, ureters, and bladder

  • LCL

    lateral collateral ligament

  • LDH

    lactate dehydrogenase

  • LFT

    liver function test

  • LIF

    left iliac fossa

  • LMA

    laryngeal mask airway

  • LMP

    last menstrual period

  • LMWH

    low-molecular-weight heparin

  • LP

    lumbar puncture

  • LRTI

    lower respiratory tract infection

  • LUQ

    left upper quadrant

  • LV

    left ventricular

  • MAP

    mean arterial pressure

  • MC&S

    microscopy, culture, and sensitivity

  • mcg

    microgram

  • MCL

    medial collateral ligament

  • MCPJ

    metacarpophalangeal joint

  • MCQ

    multiple-choice question

  • MCV

    mean corpuscular volume

  • MDDUS

    Medical Doctors and Dentists Defence Union of Scotland

  • MDT

    multidisciplinary team

  • MDU

    Medical Defence Union

  • MEN

    multiple endocrine neoplasia

  • MHC

    major histocompatibility complex

  • MI

    myocardial infarction

  • MMR

    measles, mumps, and rubella

  • MMSE

    Mini–Mental State Examination

  • MoCA

    Montreal Cognitive Assessment

  • MPS

    Medical Protection Society

  • MR

    mitral regurgitation

  • MRC

    Medical Research Council

  • MRCP

    magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

  • MRI

    magnetic resonance imaging

  • MS

    multiple sclerosis

  • MSk

    musculoskeletal

  • MSU

    midstream specimen of urine

  • MTPJ

    metatarsophalangeal joint

  • MV

    mitral valve

  • N&V

    nausea and vomiting

  • NAFLD

    non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

  • NAI

    non-accidental injury

  • NASH

    non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

  • NF1

    neurofibromatosis type 1

  • NG

    nasogastric

  • NHL

    non-Hodgkin lymphoma

  • NHS

    National Health Service

  • NICE

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence

  • NIHSS

    National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

  • NIV

    non-invasive ventilation

  • NSAID

    non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

  • NSTEMI

    non-ST elevation myocardial infarction

  • O&G

    obstetrics and gynaecology

  • OA

    osteoarthritis

  • OGD

    oesophagogastroduodenoscopy

  • OGTT

    oral glucose tolerance test

  • OHFP2

    Oxford Handbook for the Foundation Programme, second edition

  • OMFS

    oral and maxillofacial surgery

  • OSCE

    objective structured clinical examination

  • PA

    posteroanterior

  • PBC

    primary biliary cholangitis

  • PBL

    problem-based learning

  • PC

    presenting complaint

  • PCA

    patient-controlled analgesia

  • PCI

    percutaneous coronary intervention

  • PCL

    posterior cruciate ligament

  • PCOS

    polycystic ovarian syndrome

  • PCR

    polymerase chain reaction

  • PE

    pulmonary embolism

  • PEFR

    peak expiratory flow rate

  • PEP

    post-exposure prophylaxis

  • PET

    positron emission tomography

  • PhD

    Doctor of Philosophy

  • PICC

    peripherally inserted central catheter

  • PID

    pelvic inflammatory disease

  • PIPJ

    proximal interphalangeal joint

  • PMHx

    past medical history

  • PMR

    polymyalgia rheumatica

  • PNS

    peripheral nervous system

  • PO

    orally

  • PPI

    proton pump inhibitor

  • PR

    per rectum (rectally)

  • PSA

    prescribing skills assessment

  • PSC

    primary sclerosing cholangitis

  • PTH

    parathyroid hormone

  • PV

    per vaginam (vaginally)

  • PVD

    peripheral vascular disease

  • RA

    rheumatoid arthritis

  • RAPD

    relative afferent pupillary defect

  • RAS

    renin–angiotensin system

  • RBC

    red blood cell

  • Rh

    rhesus

  • RIF

    right iliac fossa

  • ROM

    range of movement

  • RRT

    renal replacement therapy

  • RSM

    Royal Society of Medicine

  • RTC

    road traffic collision

  • RUQ

    right upper quadrant

  • RV

    residual volume

  • SAH

    subarachnoid haemorrhage

  • SAQ

    short answer question

  • SBA

    single best answer

  • SC

    subcutaneously

  • SCC

    squamous cell carcinoma

  • SCJ

    sternoclavicular joint

  • SDH

    subdural haematoma

  • SHO

    senior house officer

  • SHx

    social history

  • SIADH

    syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

  • SIRS

    systemic inflammatory response syndrome

  • SJS

    Stevens–Johnson syndrome

  • SJT

    situational judgement test

  • SLE

    systemic lupus erythematosus

  • SMA

    superior mesenteric artery

  • SOB

    shortness of breath

  • SSc

    systemic sclerosis

  • SSM

    special study module

  • SSRI

    selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

  • stat

    immediately

  • STEMI

    ST elevation myocardial infarction

  • STI

    sexually transmitted infection

  • STJ

    scapulothoracic joint

  • SVC

    superior vena cava

  • SVT

    supraventricular tachycardia

  • T3

    triiodothyronine

  • T4

    thyroxine

  • TB

    tuberculosis

  • TBI

    traumatic brain injury

  • TCA

    tricyclic antidepressant

  • TEN

    toxic epidermal necrolysis

  • TIA

    transient ischaemic attack

  • TLC

    total lung capacity

  • TLS

    tumour lysis syndrome

  • TNF

    tumour necrosis factor

  • TOE

    transoesophageal echocardiography

  • TSH

    thyroid-stimulating hormone

  • TTE

    transthoracic echocardiography

  • TURP

    transurethral resection of the prostate

  • TV

    tidal volume

  • TVF

    tactile vocal fremitus

  • U&E

    urea and electrolytes

  • UC

    ulcerative colitis

  • UGI

    upper gastrointestinal

  • URTI

    upper respiratory tract infection

  • US

    ultrasound or United States

  • UTI

    urinary tract infection

  • V/Q

    ventilation/perfusion

  • VC

    vital capacity

  • VEGF

    vascular endothelial growth factor

  • VF

    ventricular fibrillation

  • VSD

    ventricular septal defect

  • VT

    ventricular tachycardia

  • VTE

    venous thromboembolism

  • WCC

    white cell count

  • WHO

    World Health Organization