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Cardiology 

Cardiology
Chapter:
Cardiology
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199681907.003.0008
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date: 16 October 2019

Cardiology specializes in disorders of the heart, primarily ischaemic heart disease, rhythm disturbances (arrhythmias), and structural defects. Emergency presentations with chest pain, breathlessness, or palpitations are extremely common. This chapter describes the pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and management of the leading cardiac complaints including unstable angina, ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, hypertension, infective endocarditis, and syncope. Basic electrocardiogram interpretation is explained, in addition to the jugular venous pressure waveform and risk stratification tools for atrial fibrillation and heart failure. A practical guide to the cardiovascular examination (as well as tips for success in exam situations) is included.

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