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Clinical examinations 

Clinical examinations
Chapter:
Clinical examinations
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199681907.003.0050
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date: 18 August 2019

This chapter provides guidance on how to perform clinical examinations in the following specialties: cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nervous system, obstetrics, gynaecology, ophthalmology, orthopaedic, general upper limb, spine, lower limb, and paediatrics. This chapter on clinical examination emphasizes the ability to elicit physical signs and use them to complement laboratory or radiological investigations as a diagnostic tool. It reviews important do’s and don’ts as well as end-of-the-bed observations. It also discusses signs present with diseases, and tips for around the bed space. The use of tables and illustrations is a useful aide-memoire both for revision and for use in practice. Although clinical examination is primarily taught on a patient, the structured and detailed approach of this chapter provides an insightful guide for a medical student.

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