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Respiratory medicine 

Respiratory medicine
Chapter:
Respiratory medicine
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199681907.003.0030
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date: 19 August 2019

This chapter covers the common adult presentations of respiratory disease and how to examine to help diagnose a respiratory problem. The chapter also provides common scoring systems for acute presentations of asthma (British Thoracic Society guidelines), adult pneumonia (‘CURB 65’ score), and pulmonary embolism (Well’s score). The chapter also explains the fundamentals of common investigations including chest radiographs (how to look at a chest film and spot signs of infection, pulmonary oedema, pneumothorax, and bronchiectasis) and spirometry. The categories of respiratory failure (type 1 and type 2) are explained. Along with asthma, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism, the chapter also covers chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and tuberculosis. Investigations and management of common presentations such as COPD, asthma, pneumonia, and asthma are discussed, including oxygen therapy, drug therapy, and indications for chest drain placement. There is a summary of landmark research papers in the management of respiratory problems. History and examination skills specific for respiratory medicine are also covered.

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