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Ophthalmology 

Ophthalmology
Chapter:
Ophthalmology
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199681907.003.0025
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date: 22 August 2019

Chapter 25 presents an illustrated overview of clinical ophthalmology for the medical student. Eye casualty is an excellent setting to learn about the assessment and management of acute presentations in ophthalmology. The most important acute presentations in ophthalmology are summarized including the most common causes of red eye (acute angle closure glaucoma, bacterial keratitis, anterior uveitis, scleritis, endophthalmitis, conjunctivitis, dry eye), and visual loss (retinal vascular disease, anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, vitreous haemorrhage, macular haemorrhage, retinal detachment, stroke, transient ischaemic attacks, migraine). The most frequently encountered chronic diseases in ophthalmology are cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. This chapter covers the risk factors, clinical assessment, investigation, and management (medical, laser, and surgical) of these disorders. Ophthalmic microsurgery is fascinating to observe, and this chapter provides some orientation to medical students attending eye theatres including an overview/images of phacoemulsification cataract surgery, trabeculectomy, and vitrectomy surgery.

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