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Oncology 

Oncology
Chapter:
Oncology
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199681907.003.0024
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date: 18 August 2019

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and is increasing due to an ageing population. The chapter discusses in detail the presenting signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and management of the four commonest adult cancers: breast, lung, prostate, and bowel cancers. The chapter provides essential knowledge for clinicians on important oncological emergencies, including tumour lysis syndrome, malignant spinal cord compression, superior vena cava obstruction, and hypercalcaemia. Recommendations to get the most out of an oncology attachment include advice on attending new patient clinics, radiotherapy and chemotherapy units, and following the palliative care team, whether at a hospice or in hospital. Symptom control such as nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea, and pain are discussed. Detailed approaches to history taking and examination are also covered along with diagnostics such as grading of pathology specimens, T(umour), N(odes), M(etastases) staging, and tumour markers.

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