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Nephrology 

Nephrology
Chapter:
Nephrology
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199681907.003.0021
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date: 23 October 2019

Nephrology is the study of the kidney and its diseases. This chapter describes the aetiology, presentation, and management of the main clinical syndromes of acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, glomerular diseases causing nephrotic syndrome, and glomerulonephritis, and the different modalities of renal replacement therapy: haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal transplantation, and conservative care. Practical skills of fluid assessment and intravenous fluid administration are discussed, as well as procedures including renal biopsy, dialysis line insertion, and arteriovenous fistula creation. Key components of the ‘renal examination’ and renal investigations are summarized. Renal diseases in the setting of multisystem disorders such as myeloma, rhabdomyolysis, and liver disease are also described.

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