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Endocrinology and diabetes 

Endocrinology and diabetes
Chapter:
Endocrinology and diabetes
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199681907.003.0013
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date: 22 August 2019

The specialty of endocrinology and diabetes specializes in the management of disorders of hormone production or action. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is by far the commonest condition and is characterized by insulin resistance (in comparison to insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes). Diagnostic criteria and glycaemic management (both oral and injectable) are discussed, as well as complications (including foot ulcers, retinopathy, and increased cardiovascular risk) and diabetes in pregnancy. The next commonest endocrine diseases affect the thyroid gland, causing both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism; the pathophysiology, clinical features, and management of both are outlined. Rarer endocrinopathies affect the adrenal glands (e.g. Addison’s disease, Conn’s disease, and phaeochromocytoma) or pituitary gland (e.g. Cushing’s disease, prolactinoma, and acromegaly). Endocrine disorders can also lead to metabolic disturbances including hypo/hypernatraemia and hypo/hypercalcaemia.

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