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David A. Mitchell

, Laura Mitchell

, and Lorna McCaul

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date: 06 December 2021

Contents. What is orthodontics?. Definitions. Orthodontic assessment. The Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Cephalometrics. More cephalometrics. Treatment planning. Management of the developing dentition. Extractions. Extraction of poor quality first permanent molars. Spacing. Distal movement of the upper buccal segments. Buccally displaced maxillary canines. Palatally displaced maxillary canines. Increased overjet. Increased overbite. Management of increased overbite. Anterior open bite (AOB). Reverse overjet. Crossbites. Anchorage. Temporary anchorage devices (TAD). Removable appliances. Fixed appliances. Functional appliances—rationale and mode of action. Types of functional appliance and practical tips. Orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. Cleft lip and palate.

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