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Definition of heart failure, basic epidemiology, and pathophysiology 

Definition of heart failure, basic epidemiology, and pathophysiology
Definition of heart failure, basic epidemiology, and pathophysiology

Roy S. Gardner

, Theresa A. McDonagh

, and Niki L. Walker

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date: 22 February 2020

Heart failure is a clinical syndrome consisting of symptoms such as breathlessness, fatigue, and ankle swelling caused by cardiac dysfunction: most commonly attributable to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. It affects 1-2% of the population, increasing to 7% in the elderly. There are many causes of heart failure, the most common of which in Westernized societies is coronary heart disease. Although advances in disease modifying therapy have substantially improved outcomes in clinical trials, the prognosis remains poor. Over 30% of patients admitted to hospital with heart failure are dead at 1 year, with 11% dying during their admission.

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