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Trigger point injections 

Trigger point injections
Chapter:
Trigger point injections
Author(s):

John Tanner

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199674107.003.0057
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date: 07 April 2020

A trigger point is characterized by a focus of hyper-irritability in a muscle that is locally tender when compressed and, if sufficiently hypersensitive, gives rise to referred pain and tenderness. A trigger point may produce autonomic phenomena. If the focus lies within a taut band of skeletal muscle and is active, it exhibits a local ‘twitch’ response when rolled under the palpating fingers. Each muscle tends to have characteristic locations of trigger points with typical patterns of referred pain. Trigger points can be primary in the sense that they have become active as a result of direct influences on the muscle itself. Indirectly, these points may be triggered as part of a referral pattern, from other parts of the musculoskeletal system or from visceral sources. A final cause of trigger points with myofascial dysfunction is emotional distress, which may be mediated by increased sympathetic tone and circulating humoral factors.

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