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Psychological aspects of musculoskeletal pain 

Psychological aspects of musculoskeletal pain
Psychological aspects of musculoskeletal pain

Peter J. Clough

and Angela E. Clough

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date: 30 July 2021

This chapter is based on the work of Chris Main and Paul Watson. It includes the more recent developments made by Peter O’Sullivan, David Butler, Lorimer Moseley, and Michael Thacker who have enhanced the evidence base for musculoskeletal clinicians with their work on a cognitive functional (CFT) approach and their understanding of modern pain biology and neuroscience to enable patients to change their behaviour. Research into the factors that make musculoskeletal pain likely to become chronic has continued to highlight psychosocial factors. Although the original research related to low back pain, similar research for other areas of the spine has revealed that similar factors operate there. Also, there are indications that peripheral areas such as the shoulder are subject to prolongation of pain with adverse psychological and social factors.

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