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TENS-like devices 

TENS-like devices
Chapter:
TENS-like devices
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199673278.003.0011
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date: 09 April 2020

TENS-like devices deliver electrical currents across the intact surface of the skin using pulse generators with technical output specifications that differ from a standard TENS device. Technological advances have resulted in reductions in the size and cost of electrotherapeutic devices with increasing varieties of self-administered hand-held TENS-like devices available to practitioners and the general public. The diversity of TENS-like devices available on the market makes synthesizing evidence difficult. The purpose of this chapter is to categorize TENS-like devices and briefly overview the characteristics, mechanism of action, and effectiveness of various TENS-like devices. The chapter covers high-voltage pulsed (Galvanic) current, microcurrent electrical therapy, low-intensity transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation, transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia, transcutaneous piezoelectric current, non-invasive interactive neurostimulation, action potential simulation and H-wave therapy, and transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation.

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