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Disorders of gender and fertility 

Disorders of gender and fertility
Disorders of gender and fertility

Helen E. Turner

, Richard Eastell

, and Ashley Grossman

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date: 20 April 2021

This chapter discusses disorders of sex development, listing terminology, proper communication, family history, hormonal assessment, genetic assessment, and management strategies like surgery and psychosocial therapy. Disorders of sex development are a wide range of conditions with diverse pathophysiology that most often present in the newborn or the adolescent. Affected newborns usually present with atypical genitalia, whereas adolescents present with atypical sexual development during the pubertal years. The chapter also describes gender dysmorphia, its physical symptoms, hormonal causes, and drug-related or surgical treatment options. It finally discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of infertility in both sexes, and the causes behind infertility, like hypogonadism, endometriosis, intrauterine factors, autoimmunity, primary testicular disease, varicocele, and ejaculatory disorders.

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