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Pathophysiology of periarticular bone changes in osteoarthritis 

Pathophysiology of periarticular bone changes in osteoarthritis
Chapter:
Pathophysiology of periarticular bone changes in osteoarthritis
Author(s):

Steven R. Goldring

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199668847.003.0005
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date: 31 May 2020

Under physiological conditions, the subchondral bone of diarthrodial joints such as the hip, knee, and phalanges forms an integrated biocomposite with the overlying calcified and hyaline articular cartilage that is optimally organized to transfer mechanical load. During the evolution of the osteoarthritic process both the periarticular bone and cartilage undergo marked changes in their structural and functional properties in response to adverse biomechanical and biological signals. These changes are mediated by bone cells that modify the architecture and properties of the bone through active cellular processes of modelling and remodelling. These same biomechanical and biological factors also affect chondrocytes in the cartilage matrix altering the composition and structure of the cartilage and further disrupting the homeostatic relationship between the cartilage and bone. This chapter reviews the structural alterations and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis bone pathology and discusses potential approaches for targeting bone remodelling to attenuate the progression of the osteoarthritic process.

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