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Epidemiology and risk factors for calcium pyrophosphate deposition 

Epidemiology and risk factors for calcium pyrophosphate deposition
Epidemiology and risk factors for calcium pyrophosphate deposition

Abhishek Abhishek

and Michael Doherty

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date: 25 January 2021

Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) is rare in younger adults but becomes increasingly common over the age of 55 years, especially at the knee. Ageing and osteoarthritis (OA) are the main attributable risk factors. Hyperparathyroidism, hypomagnesaemia, haemochromatosis, and hypophosphatasia are other less common risk factors. Rare families with familial CPPD have been reported from many different parts of the world, and mainly present as young-onset polyarticular CPPD. Recent studies suggest that CPPD occurs as the result of a generalized constitutional predisposition and may also associate with low cortical bone mineral density. Previous meniscectomy, joint injury, and constitutional knee malalignment are local biomechanical risk factors specifically for knee chondrocalcinosis. Although associated with OA, current evidence suggests that CPPD does not associate with development or progression of OA.

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