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Cartilage (including meniscus) 

Cartilage (including meniscus)
Cartilage (including meniscus)

Peter M. van der Kraan

and Esmeralda N. Blaney Davidson

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date: 23 June 2021

This chapter provides an overview of tissues unique to synovial joints, articular cartilage, and meniscus. The development and cellular and (bio)chemical composition are described, as well as the role of mechanical stimuli. In addition, the role of growth factors in cartilage and meniscus homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and chondrocyte hypertrophy are discussed. Furthermore, the involvement of aggrecanases and matrix metalloproteinases in cartilage and meniscus matrix degradation and osteoarthritis are described. Finally, the current status of repair of articular cartilage and meniscus is provided. This chapter reflects the changes in cellular differentiation, growth factor signalling, and altered matrix composition that contribute to osteoarthritis.

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