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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Chapter:
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Author(s):

Lee S. Simon

and Marc C. Hochberg

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199668847.003.0030
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date: 29 May 2020

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a chemically diverse group of compounds that share three cardinal characteristics: they are anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic. They are approved by regulatory authorities for the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute gout, and some forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are at least 20 chemically different NSAIDs currently available in Europe and the United States. These include not only the ‘traditional’ non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors that inhibit both the COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes but also the COX-2 selective inhibitors. This chapter gives a background of NSAIDs, including the mechanism of action, pharmacology and adverse effects (including hypersensitivity and gastrointestinal, cardiovascular thrombotic, and renal adverse effects), before summarizing the use of NSAIDs in patients with osteoarthritis.

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