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Radiography and computed tomography imaging of osteoarthritis 

Radiography and computed tomography imaging of osteoarthritis
Chapter:
Radiography and computed tomography imaging of osteoarthritis
Author(s):

Daichi Hayashi

, Ali Guermazi

, and Frank W. Roemer

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199668847.003.0016
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date: 29 May 2020

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disorder in the elderly worldwide and there is still no effective treatment, other than joint arthroplasty for end-stage OA, despite ongoing research efforts. Imaging is essential for assessing structural joint damage and disease progression. Radiography is the most widely used first-line imaging modality for structural OA evaluation. Its inherent limitations should be noted including lack of ability to directly visualize most OA-related pathological features in and around the joint, lack of sensitivity to longitudinal change and missing specificity of joint space narrowing, and technical difficulties regarding reproducibility of positioning of the joints in longitudinal studies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely applied in epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Computed tomography (CT) is an important additional tool that offers insight into high-resolution bony anatomical details and allows three-dimensional post-processing of imaging data, which is of particular importance for orthopaedic surgery planning. However, its major disadvantage is limitations in the assessment of soft tissue structures compared to MRI. CT arthrography can be useful in evaluation of focal cartilage defects or meniscal tears; however, its applicability may be limited due to its invasive nature. This chapter describes the roles and limitations of both conventional radiography and CT, including CT arthrography, in clinical practice and OA research. The emphasis is on OA of the knee, but other joints are also mentioned where appropriate.

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