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Anal cancer 

Anal cancer
Chapter:
Anal cancer
Author(s):

Debashis Biswas

and Thankamma Ajithkumar

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199664535.003.0014
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date: 20 August 2019

The incidence of anal cancer is increasing globally. The two important risk factors of anal cancer are human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and immunosuppression. 50% of patients present with localised disease and 30% have regional nodal disease. Radical radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C (MMC) is the standard treatment of localised disease. With this approach a significant proportion of patients maintains sphincter function and avoids colonostomy. Studies using alternative chemotherapy regimens are not proven to be superior. The optimal time to assess treatment response and plan salvage surgery remains controversial. Patients with advanced disease or recurrence after radical chemoradiotherapy are treated with abdomino-pelvic resection.

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