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Epilepsy and related disorders 

Epilepsy and related disorders
Epilepsy and related disorders

Dewi Schrader

, Neda Bernasconi

, and Andrea Bernasconi

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date: 09 July 2020

The two most common causes of drug-resistant epilepsy are mesial temporal sclerosis and focal cortical dysplasia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most useful technique for delineating the underlying cause of seizures, particularly when combined with recent post-processing methods that further increase our ability to reveal subtle lesions. In cases where structural MRI is unrevealing or discordant with electroclinical information, functional studies may play an adjunctive role by helping to direct a focused re-evaluation of the structural MRI or the placement of intracranial electrodes. Besides playing a pivotal role in the management of patients with drug-resistant seizures, advances in neuroimaging have significantly deepened our understanding of epilepsy, including patients with seizures that are not due to focal lesions, such as in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, and provide important information on the pathogenesis of this condition, as well as the effects of recurrent seizures on the brain.

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