Show Summary Details
Page of

Development of public health in economic transition: the middle-income countries 

Development of public health in economic transition: the middle-income countries
Development of public health in economic transition: the middle-income countries

Kai Hong Phua

, Mui-Teng Yap

, Sara U. Schwanke Khilji

, and Hin-Peng Lee

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 03 July 2022

While communicable diseases are declining in middle income countries, there are threats of new and re-emerging infectious diseases with rapid socio-economic developments linked to environmental and climate change. All middle income countries are witnessing a rise of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors such as diet, tobacco and alcohol use, obesity, and sedentary and harmful lifestyles, as populations become richer and older.

Many governments have embarked on healthcare reform efforts to improve equity and efficiency in their provision, financing and regulation of health systems. Building upon a growing capacity to deliver basic health services, the new priorities in middle income countries are to achieve greater social protection with universal health coverage. The rising costs of healthcare due to chronic diseases and ageing populations have created an unprecedented challenge and a strong case for investment in the public health systems of middle income countries, especially in disease prevention and health promotion.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.