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Emerging and re-emerging infections 

Emerging and re-emerging infections
Emerging and re-emerging infections

David L. Heymann

and Vernon J. M. Lee

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date: 03 July 2022

Infectious organisms reproduce, mutate, and cross the species barrier between animals and humans, resulting in epidemics and pandemics. The entire world is susceptible to these diseases that know no boundaries, and their impact on communities go far beyond the direct health outcomes to affect the economy and society as a whole. This chapter discusses factors that influence the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases including weak public health infrastructure; failure of safety procedures and regulations; population shifts including rapid population increases and uncontrolled urbanization; anthropogenic activities and climate change; civil disturbance, human displacement, and natural disasters; human behaviours; and deliberate use of infective agents. To address this threat, national and international disease management systems have to be strengthened, and networks built to facilitate cross-border and multisectoral collaboration.

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