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David W. Dowdy

, Richard E. Chaisson

, and Gavin J. Churchyard

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date: 19 May 2022

For the first time in history, the number of new incident tuberculosis (TB) cases has started to decline worldwide. This momentous accomplishment can be attributed to an unprecedented scale-up of basic TB control measures, including access to diagnosis through sputum smear microscopy, use of effective drug therapy, and measures to prevent TB transmission and disease. Nevertheless, we remain far from the target of eliminating TB as a public health problem by 2050. This chapter discusses particular challenges which include control of TB in key populations, such as people living with HIV, individuals infected with drug-resistant TB, and children. Scaling up active case finding, antiretroviral therapy, TB preventive therapy, and infection control is required to control TB in high-burden countries. Only with increased funding, research, and innovation, coupled with political commitment and global attention to the fundamentals of TB control can the goal of global TB elimination be realized.

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