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Pathology of bladder and upper urinary tract tumours 

Pathology of bladder and upper urinary tract tumours
Pathology of bladder and upper urinary tract tumours

Simone Bertz

, and Arndt Hartmann

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date: 25 June 2019

Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumour of the urinary tract, with approximately 386,000 new cases worldwide per year, and is the fifth most common cancer in humans. Mortality rates range between 1.1 per 100,000 for women to 4 per 100,000 in men. Most bladder and urinary tract cancers are urothelial carcinoma. The remainder are squamous cell carcinoma (5%), adenocarcinoma (<5%) and other rare tumours (<1%). Around 5–10% of urothelial carcinoma are found in the upper urinary tract. Unlike the majority of malignant tumours in other anatomical sites, most urothelial carcinoma have a favourable prognosis. In patients with these tumours, long-term follow-up is crucial but costly (making bladder cancer one of the most expensive to manage). The current WHO classification system of 2004 reflects these molecular and clinical features by the definition of distinct categories for low and high-grade flat or papillary lesions.

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