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The principles of endourology 

The principles of endourology
Chapter:
The principles of endourology
Author(s):

Stephen Keoghane

, and Mark Sullivan

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199659579.003.0032
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date: 25 May 2019

The chapter discusses the principles of endourology outlining the principles behind the sub-specialty. Topics disused include endoscopes, cystoscopes, rigid and semi-rigid ureteroscopes, flexible ureterorenoscopes, rigid and flexible nephroscopes, disposable equipment, integrated operating theatres, narrow band imaging (NBI), theatre ergonomics, and antibiotics. Urologic endoscopes are generally of two optical designs: the rigid, rod lens system described by Hopkins, while fibre-optic imaging bundles are used in both rigid and flexible endoscopes. The rod lens system consists of a series of glass rods with polished ends with the key feature of air gaps that act as a lens. Light is carried efficiently along the rod, resulting in a clear and bright image.

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