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Neuroimmunology 

Neuroimmunology
Chapter:
Neuroimmunology
Author(s):

Angela Vincent

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199658602.003.0015
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date: 09 May 2021

This chapter relates to antibody-mediated disorders throughout the nervous system. Early papers recall how use of bungarotoxin, passive transfer experiments in mice, and clinical response to plasma exchange confirmed the role of acetylcholine receptor antibodies in myasthenia gravis. Cutting edge techniques subsequently discovered other key neuromuscular junctional proteins, including muscle-specific kinase an additional target for antibodies. Later papers report the link between brain inflammation and severe amnesia, paraneoplastic and non-paraneoplastic, and the identification of the first pathogenic antibodies to a central nervous system (CNS) receptor in Rasmussen’s syndrome. The first report of “Morvan’s syndrome” is followed by a single patient with antibodies immunoprecipitating potassium channels who improved remarkably with plasma exchange. Lastly, the patients in the 1920’s encephalitis lethargica epidemic described in detail by von Economo, exhibited many of the features now recognised as caused by antibodies to various CNS receptors and associated membrane proteins.

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