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Imaging in cardiovascular prevention 

Imaging in cardiovascular prevention
Imaging in cardiovascular prevention

Uwe Nixdorff

, Stephan Achenbach

, Frank Bengel

, Pompillio Faggiano

, Sara Fernández

, Christian Heiss

, Thomas Mengden

, Gian Francesco Mureddu

, Eike Nagel

, Valentina Puntmann

, and Jose Zamorano


February 23, 2017: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.

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date: 27 November 2020

Imaging tools in preventive cardiology can be divided into imaging modalities to assess pre-clinical and clinical atherosclerosis and functional assessments of vascular function or vascular inflammation. To calculate the likelihood of pre-clinical atherosclerosis intima-media thickness as well as coronary calcium scoring are most frequently used. However, beyond these two there are other parameters derived by ultrasound and multi-detector computed tomography as well as magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear/molecular imaging which are discussed in the chapter. Functional tests include flow-mediated dilatation, pulse wave analysis, and the ankle-brachial index. In clinical research other invasive measurements such as intravascular ultrasound/virtual histology/elastography, optical coherence tomography as well as thermography are being used. However, their value in clinical prevention still needs to be established.

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