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Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage 

Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage
Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage

Peter Bodkin

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date: 15 April 2021

Low grade gliomas are diffusely infiltrating brain tumours, comprising: WHO grade II astrocytomas, Grade II oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas. Despite the name, low grade gliomas are not benign lesions. These tumours have growth potential and can undergo malignant transformation to high grade tumours. Seizures, often simple partial, complex partial or generalised tonic clonic, are the most common presentation in 80-90% of patients with LGG, followed by headaches and focal deficits. Close proximity to the cortex is likely to be responsible for this picture. Death is usually due to malignant change. With recent advances in neurobiology, diagnostic imaging, surgical technology and adjuvant therapies the management of these tumours has undergone a paradigm shift. This chapter explores the diagnosis and management options for low grade glioma. If the tumour has relatively discrete margins in brain tissue, a macroscopic resection may be possible without compromising function, and maximum safe surgical resection of all hyper intense tissue on FLAIR sequences should be attempted. This will improve overall and progression free survival and gives improved seizure control, as well as providing better tumour sampling for histology.

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