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Charlotte Pawlyn

, Faith Davies

, and Gareth Morgan

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date: 07 July 2020

Myeloma is a haematological malignancy of plasma cells. Uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells results in overproduction of monoclonal immunoglobulin and clinical disease is characterized by evidence of associated end-organ damage. Over 4500 patients are diagnosed in the UK each year, making it the second most common haematological malignancy. Our understanding of the molecular events underlying the pathogenesis of myeloma has dramatically increased over the last ten years and we now understand that myeloma is a heterogeneous disease with lesions in multiple different genes and pathways altering the normal development of plasma cells and leading to the oncogenic phenotype. Patient survival has concomitantly improved as a result of the development of novel therapies. Our current state of knowledge along with diagnostic approaches and treatment strategies are set out in this chapter.

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