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Genitourinary cancers 

Genitourinary cancers
Chapter:
Genitourinary cancers
Author(s):

John Fitzpatrick

, Asif Muneer

, Jean de la Rosette

, and Thomas Powles

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199656103.003.0045
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date: 22 October 2019

Genitourinary cancers include tumors of the penis, bladder, prostate, testes, kidneys and ureters. Penile cancer is a rare malignancy and the diagnosis is often delayed due to patient embarrassment. Penile-preserving surgical techniques have been developed to preserve penile length. Urothelial cell carcinoma is more often encountered in bladder (95%) than in the upper urinary tract (5%). This chapter will be divided according to the two main urothelial cell carcinoma topographies: bladder and upper urinary tract. Prostate cancer is second as far as cause of cancer death is concerned, and surgical, radiotherapeutic and hormonal treatments are discussed. Most testicular cancers that arise are germ cell tumours. Renal cell carcinoma has a number of distinct pathological types. The commonest is clear cell histology which is intrinsically linked to Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) mutations. New targeted therapies for renal carcinomas will be described in detail.

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