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Hepatobiliary cancers 

Hepatobiliary cancers
Hepatobiliary cancers

Graeme J. Poston

, Nicholas Stern

, Jonathan Evans

, Priya Healey

, Daniel Palmer

, and Mohandas K. Mallath


May 25, 2017: This chapter has been re-evaluated and remains up-to-date. No changes have been necessary.

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date: 30 July 2021

This chapter covers primary hepatobiliary cancers and includes information on epidemiology, biliary cancer (gallbladder cancer, cholangiocarcinoma), hepatobiliary cancer (hepatitis B HBV, hepatitis C HCV, liver flukes, and pathology), imaging of hepatobiliary (HB) cancers (endoscopic ultrasound, interventional biliary endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography, direct endoscopic cholangioscopy, multidisciplinary management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), assessment of severity of cirrhosis, surgery (resection, liver transplant, loco-regional treatments), medical management of HCC, and management of biliary tract cancer (surgical management of gallbladder cancer, cholangiocarcinoma). All of these cancers are presently increasing in incidence. The reason for the increase in primary biliary cancers is unclear, but the increase in hepatocellular carcinoma, a major global public health problem, is linked to the prevalence of viral hepatitis and lifestyle changes, especially obesity.

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