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Paediatric cardiac and thoracic anaesthesia 

Paediatric cardiac and thoracic anaesthesia
Paediatric cardiac and thoracic anaesthesia

Marco Ranucci

, Giuseppe Isgrò

, and Anna Cazzaniga

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date: 20 October 2020

The chapter provides a comprehensive overview on anaesthesia for congenital heart paediatric patients and paediatric thoracic anaesthesia. The main topics treated include: education and training in paediatric cardiothoracic anaesthesia; an exhaustive overview on the main patterns of congenital heart defects, with the pertinent pathophysiological changes and the relative surgical interventions (palliations and corrections); risk stratification for paediatric cardiac surgery. Pre-anaesthetic management, as well as intraoperative anaesthesia techniques are widely described. A specific attention is dedicated to the haemodynamic monitoring of the patient, with particular respect to central venous oxygen saturation, arterial blood lactates, near infrared spectroscopy and transoesophageal echocardiography. The peculiar aspects of cardiopulmonary bypass in paediatric patients are included in this chapter. Finally, an overview on the main pathologies leading to a thoracic surgery operation, with or without cardiopulmonary bypass is included. Pathophysiology of the lateral position, bronchoscopy and related issues complete this part.

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