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Anatomy and pathology of the heart and major vascular system 

Anatomy and pathology of the heart and major vascular system
Anatomy and pathology of the heart and major vascular system

Neil Hauser

, Adriaan Myburgh

, and Justiaan Swanevelder

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date: 20 October 2020

The heart is divided anatomically in to right and left sides, each with unique morphological and physiological features. The myocardium itself has specific characteristics and can be affected by both acute and chronic pathologies leading to cardiac dysfunction, the understanding of which is integral to cardiovascular anaesthesia.The valvular apparatus of the heart is susceptible to pathology and presentation depends on the affected valve and pathology involved. Valvular heart disease is a major aspect of cardiovascular anaesthesia and understanding presentation and pathophysiology facilitates patient management. Valvular disease is generally one of stenosis (narrowing), regurgitation (incompetence), or a combination of the two. The chapter explores the pressure-volume loops as well as the cardiac cycles of each valve pathology. Transthoracic and transoesophageal ultrasound is important in the evaluation and management of cardiac and valve pathology. Infective endocarditis remains a challenging condition in terms of diagnosis, intervention, and prognosis. Aetiology varies depending on the population affected. Other diseases mentioned include cardiac tamponade, cardiac tumours, and cardiomyopathies. Classification systems have been included.

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