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Astrocytic tumours: pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma 

Astrocytic tumours: pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
Chapter:
Astrocytic tumours: pilocytic astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma
Author(s):

Brian P O’Neill

, Jeffrey Allen

, Mitchell S. Berger

, and Rolf-Dieter Kortmann

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199651870.003.0002
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date: 30 May 2020

Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) (World Health Organization (WHO) grade I). A relatively circumscribed, slow-growing, often cystic astrocytoma occurring in children and young adults, histologically characterized by a biphasic pattern with varying proportions of compacted bipolar cells associated with Rosenthal fibres and loose-textured multipolar cells associated with microcysts and eosinophilic granular bodies. Most PAs are localized, macrocystic, and only marginally infiltrative. However some PAs, such as those arising in the optic pathways, are rarely cystic and may have an extensive infiltrative pattern but within a neuroanatomic pathway. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) (WHO grade II). An astrocytic neoplasm with a relatively favourable prognosis, typically encountered in children and young adults, with superficial location in the cerebral hemispheres and involvement of the meninges; characteristic histological features include pleomorphic and lipidized cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein and often surrounded by a reticulin network as well as eosinophilic granular bodies. Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) (WHO grade I). A benign, slow-growing tumour typically arising in the wall of the lateral ventricles and composed of large ganglioid astrocytes. It is the most common CNS neoplasm in patients with tuberous sclerosis.

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