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Familial tumour syndromes: tuberous sclerosis complex 

Familial tumour syndromes: tuberous sclerosis complex
Familial tumour syndromes: tuberous sclerosis complex

Howard Weiner

and Peter B. Crino

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date: 23 June 2021

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem, genetic disorder that results from mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Neurological and neuropsychiatric disabilities include epilepsy, intellectual disability, autism, attention deficit disorder, and generalized anxiety. Cortical dysplasias (also known as tubers) are developmental abnormalities of the cerebral cortex that are believed to be responsible for seizures, cognitive disability, and autism. Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are intraventricular tumours that can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure, and death. TSC results from hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in neurons in the brain. This chapter reviews the clinical presentations of TSC as well as diagnostic approaches for epilepsy and SEGAs. It discusses the genetics and cellular pathogenesis of TSC as well as reviewing the link to mTOR signalling. This chapter also presents evidence for different treatment modalities for seizures and SEGAs. It is written for qualified specialist physicians and caregivers.

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