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Familial tumour syndromes: von Hippel–Lindau disease 

Familial tumour syndromes: von Hippel–Lindau disease
Familial tumour syndromes: von Hippel–Lindau disease

Hiroshi Kanno

and Joachim P. Steinbach

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date: 28 July 2021

Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease, an autosomal dominant familial tumour syndrome, is often associated with haemangioblastoma of the central nervous system. In the presence of oxygen, VHL protein serves to prevent the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) protein by targeting it to the proteasomal pathway, while biallelic inactivation of the VHL gene blocks degradation of HIF and leads to constitutive activation of the HIF pathway although oxygen is present. HIF-target genes are involved in angiogenesis, proliferation, and metabolism enabling tumour growth. Haemangioblastoma is a highly vascularized, begin tumour commonly associated with a cyst, but it is linked with neurological morbidity and mortality based on its location and multiplicity. Haemangioblastoma in VHL is diagnosed according to symptoms and signs, past and family histories, laboratory data, neuroradiological findings, pathological findings, and genetic testing. Surgical treatment is usually the most recommended therapy for haemangioblastomas, and using well-defined microsurgical techniques, the majority can be resected safely.

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