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The effects of sex and gender on child and adolescent pain 

The effects of sex and gender on child and adolescent pain
The effects of sex and gender on child and adolescent pain

Erin C. Moon

and Anita M. Unruh

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date: 29 July 2021

As women enter adulthood, they are at an increased risk for a number of clinical pain conditions and show higher experimental pain sensitivity relative to men (e.g. Fillingim et al., 2009). The feminine gender role encourages the expression of pain in both children and adults whereas the masculine gender role encourages stoicism in response to pain (e.g. Robinson et al., 2001; Zeman and Garber, 1996). The earlier work of Unruh (1996), Berkeley (1992, 1997), and LeResche (1997), demonstrated that sex and gender shaped the experience of pain and a subsequent body of research has continued to articulate their influence.

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