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The Many Faces of Parkinsonism: A Review of the Parkinson Look-alike Syndromes 

The Many Faces of Parkinsonism: A Review of the Parkinson Look-alike Syndromes
Chapter:
The Many Faces of Parkinsonism: A Review of the Parkinson Look-alike Syndromes
Author(s):

Susanne A. Schneider

and Christine Klein

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199609536.003.0012
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date: 29 October 2020

Parkinson’s disease (PD), and more so ‘parkinsonian syndromes’, have many faces. In recent years numerous genetic causes of parkinsonism have been identified in addition to idiopathic PD and secondary form. In this chapter we review the genetic causes of parkinsonism, with particular focus on mimics of idiopathic PD. These include disorders assigned a PARK locus that present with either classic parkinsonism or with parkinsonism with additional atypical features, causes of classic parkinsonism associated with mutations in a non-PARK or ‘other than-PARK’ gene (e.g. in a DYT or SCA gene) where parkinsonism is a well-recognized concomitant or even isolated feature, and disorders of atypical parkinsonism as a rare presentation of a genetic disorder which is usually characterized by features other than parkinsonism. We will summarize clinical characteristics, results of investigations (e.g. imaging, electrophysiology, or pathological data), and main genetic findings in order to provide a useful overview for clinicians and scientists who may be puzzled by this evolving area.

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