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Parkinson’s Disease: Advanced Disease, Motor Complications, and Management 

Parkinson’s Disease: Advanced Disease, Motor Complications, and Management
Parkinson’s Disease: Advanced Disease, Motor Complications, and Management

Susan H. Fox

, Binit Shah

, Richard Walsh

, and Anthony Lang

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date: 27 October 2021

Advanced Parkinson’s disease is characterized by progressive worsening of motor symptoms with bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and bulbar, gait, and balance problems. All these complications lead to increased functional disability and reduced quality of life. With ongoing disease, many of these symptoms become less responsive to medical therapy. In addition, patients develop a range of fluctuating symptoms in response to levodopa therapy that mar the quality of antiparkinsonian response. Management of these levodopa-responsive and non-levodopa-responsive symptoms requires a combination of pharmacological, surgical, and non-pharmacological approaches.

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