Show Summary Details
Page of

Navigating research methods: quantitative and clinical/epidemiological methods 

Navigating research methods: quantitative and clinical/epidemiological methods
Chapter:
Navigating research methods: quantitative and clinical/epidemiological methods
DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199608478.003.0003
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 23 October 2020

This chapter focuses on various types of study design used in clinical and healthcare research with an emphasis on observational studies whilst randomised controlled trials are explained in Chapter 15. Within observational studies, the distinction between descriptive and analytical studies is made and different sources of error in epidemiological studies are reviewed. Main features, advantages and disadvantages of analytical observational studies are described for the following designs: ecological studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. A brief overview of experimental studies is also given. Measures of disease occurrence (prevalence, cumulative incidence, incidence rate) as well as effect measures (1.difference measures, ie. attributable risk, and 2. ratio measures, i.e. relative risk, odds ratio, relative risk reduction, attributable fraction) are reviewed. The chapter also presents major characteristics of meta-analysis.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.