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Ageing at cellular level 

Ageing at cellular level
Chapter:
Ageing at cellular level
Author(s):

Anand Prakash

and Kailash Krishnan

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199604999.003.0001
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date: 18 August 2019

This chapter briefly summarizes the current understanding of the complex processes involved in ageing. It includes possible genetic factors, such as teleomeric shortening, codon restriction, and transcription failure, as well as signalling pathways (e.g. those of insulin and the target of rapamycin [TOR]). Oxidative and nitrosative stress and the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species linked to ageing are discussed. While oxidative stress is well investigated, nitrosative stress is reviewed as an emerging potent factor in ageing that can act independently or synergistically with reactive oxygen species. Apoptosis, although an essential process in healthy tissues, is discussed as it becomes more easily deranged in ageing cells. These changes with age that may limit apoptosis and enable cancerous cell replication or be too active and lead to inappropriate cell loss, such as in dementia, are explored.

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