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Renal calculi and nephrocalcinosis 

Renal calculi and nephrocalcinosis
Renal calculi and nephrocalcinosis

Lesley Rees

, Paul A. Brogan

, Detlef Bockenhauer

, and Nicholas J.A. Webb

Page of

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date: 18 September 2020

Renal calculi 174

Specific causes of calculi: investigation and management 178

Nephrocalcinosis 180

Metabolic: supersaturation of stone forming ions (Ca, phosphate, urate, oxalate, cystine) due to increased excretion, increased urinary concentration, alteration of ion solubility due to urine pH or lack of normally-produced inhibitors of crystal formation....

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