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Urinary tract infection 

Urinary tract infection
Urinary tract infection

Lesley Rees

, Paul A. Brogan

, Detlef Bockenhauer

, and Nicholas J.A. Webb

Page of

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date: 30 October 2020

Background and clinical features 76

Collection of urine samples and diagnosis 77

Bacterial and host factors that predispose to infection 79

Management 81

Investigations 82

The penis and foreskin 87

Vulvovaginitis 89

Three per cent of girls and 1% of boys have a symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) before the age of 11 years, and 50% of them have a recurrence within a year. The highest incidence is in the first year of life. UTI may involve the kidneys (pyelonephritis), when it is associated with fever and systemic involvement, or may be due to cystitis, when fever is absent or low grade. Up to one half of children with a UTI have a structural abnormality of their urinary tract. UTI is important because, if the upper tracts are affected, it may damage the growing kidney by forming a scar, predisposing to hypertension and, if bilateral, CKD....

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