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Respiratory support with positive end-expiratory pressure 

Respiratory support with positive end-expiratory pressure
Chapter:
Respiratory support with positive end-expiratory pressure
Author(s):

Ignacio Martin-Loeches

and Antonio Artigas

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199600830.003.0094
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date: 27 February 2020

Positive-end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is the pressure present in the airway (alveolar pressure) above atmospheric pressure that exists at the end of expiration. The term PEEP is defined in two particular settings. Extrinsic PEEP (applied by ventilator) and intrinsic PEEP (PEEP caused by non-complete exhalation causing progressive air trapping). Applied (extrinsic) PEEP—is usually one of the first ventilator settings chosen when mechanical ventilation (MV) is initiated. Applying PEEP increases alveolar pressure and volume. The increased lung volume increases the surface area by reopening and stabilizing collapsed or unstable alveoli. PEEP therapy can be effective when used in patients with a diffuse lung disease with a decrease in functional residual capacity. Lung protection ventilation is an established strategy of management to reduce and avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and mortality. Levels of PEEP have been traditionally used from 5 to 12 cmH2O; however, higher levels of PEEP have also been proposed and updated in order to keep alveoli open, without the cyclical opening and closing of lung units (atelectrauma). The ideal level of PEEP is that which prevents derecruitment of the majority of alveoli, while causing minimal overdistension; however, it should be individualized and higher PEEP might be used in the more severe end of the spectrum of patients with improved survival. A survival benefit for higher levels of PEEP has not been yet reported for any patient under MV, but a higher PaO2/FiO2 ratio seems to be better in the higher PEEP group.

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