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Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation 

Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation
Chapter:
Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation
Author(s):

Giulia Spoletini

and Nicholas S. Hill

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199600830.003.0090
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date: 25 February 2020

Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been increasingly used over the past decades to avoid endotracheal intubation (ETI) in critical care settings. In selected patients with acute respiratory failure, NIV improves the overall clinical status more rapidly than standard oxygen therapy, avoids ETI and its complications, reduces length of hospital stay, and improves survival. NIV is primarily indicated in respiratory failure due to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and associated with immunocompromised states. Weaker evidence supports its use in other forms of acute hypercapnic and hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Candidates for NIV should be carefully selected taking into consideration the risk factors for NIV failure. Patients on NIV who are unstable or have risk factors for NIV failure should be monitored in an intensive or intermediate care units by experienced personnel to avoid delay when intubation is needed. Stable NIV patients can be monitored on regular wards.

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