Show Summary Details
Page of

Diagnosis and management of viral haemorrhagic fevers in the ICU 

Diagnosis and management of viral haemorrhagic fevers in the ICU
Chapter:
Diagnosis and management of viral haemorrhagic fevers in the ICU
Author(s):

Emersom C. Mesquita

and Fernando A. Bozza

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199600830.003.0293
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE (www.oxfordmedicine.com). © Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 24 February 2020

In a globalized scenario where widespread international travel allows viral agents to migrate from endemic to non-endemic areas, health care providers and critical care specialists must be able to readily recognize a suspected case of viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF). Early suspicion is pivotal for improving patient outcome and to ensure that appropriate biosafety measures be applied. VHFs are acute febrile illnesses marked by coagulation disorders and organ specific syndromes. VHFs represent a great medical challenge because diseases are associated with a high mortality rate and many VHFs have the potential for person-to-person transmission (Filoviruses, Arenavioruses, and Bunyaviroses). Dengue is the most frequent haemorrhagic viral disease and re-emergent infection in the world and, due to its public health relevance, severe dengue will receive special attention in this chapter. The diagnosis of VHFs is made by detecting specific antibodies, viral antigens (ELISA) and viral nucleic acid (RT-PCR) on blood samples. Supportive care is the cornerstone in the treatment of VHFs. Ribavirin should be started as soon as a case of VHF is suspected and discontinued if a diagnosis of Filovirus or Flavivirus infection is established. Adjunctive antimicrobial therapy is usually implemented to treat co-existing or secondary infections. Antimalarial treatment should also be initiated if a malaria test (thick blood films) is not quickly available and/or reliable and patients travel history is compatible. It is always recommended to apply appropriate biosafety measures and notify local infection control unit and state and national authorities.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.