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The effect of chronic renal failure on critical illness 

The effect of chronic renal failure on critical illness
Chapter:
The effect of chronic renal failure on critical illness
Author(s):

Sinead Kinsella

and John Holian

DOI:
10.1093/med/9780199600830.003.0218
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date: 25 February 2020

The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is increasing, reflecting an increase in the incidence and prevalence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Patients with CKD and ESKD frequently experience episodes of critical illness and require treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU)setting. Management requires specific consideration of their renal disease status together with their acute illness. Mortality in critically-ill patients with ESKD is frequently related to their co-morbid conditions, rather than their ESKD status. Illness severity scoring systems allocate high points for renal variables and tend to overestimate actual mortality. Patients with ESKD and CKD requiring ICU admission have better ICU and in-hospital survival than patients with denovo acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. Appropriately selected patients benefit from ICU admission and full consideration for ICU care should be given to these patients if required, despite their renal disease status. Cardiovascular disease and sepsis account for the majority of ICU admissions in this population and the aetiology of these conditions differs from that in patients without kidney disease. Optimal critical care management of patients with ESKD and CKD requires that these differences are recognized.

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