Show Summary Details
Page of

Pathophysiology of oliguria and acute kidney injury 

Pathophysiology of oliguria and acute kidney injury
Pathophysiology of oliguria and acute kidney injury

Rinaldo Bellomo

and John R. Prowle

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD MEDICINE ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 03 July 2022

Oliguria and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common in critically-ill patients with studies reporting AKI affecting more than 50% of critically-ill patients. AKI is independently associated with increased mortality and is a potentially modifiable aspect of critical illness. The pathogenesis of AKI is complex and varies according to aetiology. The most common trigger in ICU patients is sepsis—the pathophysiology of septic AKI is poorly understood and probably involves intrarenal haemodynamic and inflammatory processes. In the setting of septic AKI, the classic acute tubular necrosis described in experimental models does not occur and histological changes are only minor. Activation of neurohormonal mechanisms is also important, particularly in the hepatorenal syndrome, where activation of the remain-angiotensin system appears to play a major role. The treatment of oliguria and AKI in ICU patients has traditionally relied on the administration of intravenous fluids. While such therapy is warranted in patients with a clear history, and physical examination suggestive of intravascular and extravascular volume depletion, its usefulness in other patients (e.g. septic patients) remains controversial. Removal of nephrotoxins, rapid treatment of the triggering factors, and attention to cardiac output and mean arterial pressure remain the cornerstones of the prevention and treatment of AKI in ICU.

Access to the complete content on Oxford Medicine Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.