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Neil Herring

and Robert Wilkins

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date: 21 May 2022

Nephrology is the medical specialty involved in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease as well as renal replacement therapies. The kidney is a complex organ with many roles including the excretion of waste products (such as urea and ammonium) and drugs, the regulation of plasma pH, electrolytes, osmolarity and blood volume/pressure, as well as having a hormonal role in the regulation of red blood cell production (via erythropoietin), and plasma calcium (through the hydroxylation of 25(OH)-vitamin D3 to 1,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 or calcitriol). The chapter reviews the anatomy of the kidneys, ureters and bladder before focusing on the physiology of the individual segments of the nephron and their hormonal control.

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